We have For this case, we can concentrate out H and then minimize the cost function with respect to. To decouple the detection of , let Equation 10 can be rewritten as 21 where 22 and j, By collecting the received data into a row vector, we have J,24 where and 25 Let We have 31 which is similar to Equation We could add a prefix also called a guard interval to separate two consecutive space—time codes. In the demodulation, we simply need to deprefix discard the prefix the data in the guard interval before demodulation.
The space—time codes are constructed by using Equation 8. The attenuation between two consecutive taps is assumed to be 3 dB. Note that the SNR used herein, which is defined according to tap 0 for each user, is given by BER vs. It is charactered by the normalized Doppler frequency of f D T c , where f D is the Doppler frequency and T c is the chip duration of the spreading sequences.
Note that the previous two examples show that the proposed demodulation schemes are quite robust against fast fading. Hence its SISO counterpart should double the number of users to offer the same total data rate for all users.
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Note that the DSTDD receiver outperforms the DD receiver, especially for high SNR, due to the better diversity gain 16 of the former than the latter, which is precisely the motivation behind space—time coding. By partitioning Y k into submatrices corresponding to each user, Equation A1 becomes A2 which readily yields the decoupled demodulation A3.
Since H is assumed to be deterministic unknown, H can be concentrated out as A5 where we have used the fact that and. Hence, neglecting the irrelevant items yields the estimate of the information matrix A7. Jianhua Liu received the B. His research interests include wireless communications, statistical signal processing, and sensor array processing.
Jian Li received the M. Her current research interests include spectral estimation, array signal processing, and signal processing for wireless communications and radar. Volume 2 , Issue 2.
Signal Processing Applications in CDMA Communications
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Jian Li Corresponding Author E-mail address: li dsp. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, P. A Search for more papers by this author. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access.
Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract Differential space—time modulation DSTM schemes were recently proposed to fully exploit the transmit and receive antenna diversities without the need for channel state information. For differential space—time coding, C k satisfies 6 1. At the j th time sample of the k th time block, the transmitted signal is 7. Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 2 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint.
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CTypical Power Delay Profiles. F Turbo Decoding. About the Authors. Single transmit antenna transmit. Physical Layer.